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发布时间:2024-02-22 来源:http://www.quanyimoxing.com/


model design 


Design is the foundation of model making. The design department develops design plans based on customer provided data, samples, and other materials. They use computer engineering drawing software to design according to material structure, workpiece positioning, and other requirements.


Design is not just about drawing


When designing a model, it is necessary to consider issues related to subsequent processes, transportation, assembly, installation, and even display. The model should be decomposed based on the fuselage, wings, flat and vertical tails, landing gear, etc., including the arrangement and layout of internal keels and installation of structural components. After the disassembly is completed on the computer, the model should be assembled, adjusted, and improved to ensure smooth execution in the later stage.


The J-31 model made its debut at the Zhuhai Airshow


Taking the 1:2 J-31 model, which has been exhibited multiple times, as an example, the design plan at that time was to divide the aircraft model into eight parts, make them separately, and then assemble them into shape.


Design generally only focuses on the exterior, and some require interior dissection based on customer needs. The C919, C929, and ARJ aircraft models manufactured by Terbo for COMAC belong to this example.


CNC machining


After designing and modeling, the mold department performs CNC machining on the main body of the model, wings, cockpit covers, etc. Generally, wooden materials are selected and used as templates for male molds or other mold making methods.



Originating from the CNC technology required by the aviation industry, it can ensure stable quality, accurate accuracy, and meet the requirements of aircraft. When used in the simulation model manufacturing industry, it can ensure accurate data and high degree of restoration.


But some manufacturers, in order to save time and cost, directly lay fiberglass composite materials after the wooden mold is made, and enter the outer shell stage. This will greatly reduce the accuracy and smoothness of the model's appearance.


Assembly correction


After CNC machining, various components are polished and assembled for inspection to ensure the accurate shape of the wooden mold. The finished wooden mold (usually referred to as the "mold type") is sprayed with bottom ash for customer confirmation of the shape and functional structure. The mold is then modified based on opinions from all parties until the customer is satisfied before being put into the next stage.


Yin mold production


During the production process, if the model has a large volume, it is necessary to use a block method for engineering mold division. The main body of the aircraft, wings, vertical tails, etc. should be made separately, and steel reinforcement and other operations should be carried out according to the force requirements.


Shell forming


Based on the force analysis and load calculation of the model, high-strength and corrosion-resistant fiberglass materials are selected for reasonable direction laying to ensure that the subsequent product does not crack.


There is a patent for edge laying, and the adhesive formula has undergone high and low temperature testing. Generally, 3-6 layers of fiberglass are laid inside according to customer needs and actual situations to ensure the hardness and strength of the product. But some manufacturers, in order to reduce costs, use weaving materials at this stage, so the models produced cannot undergo high and low temperature testing, let alone ensure the safety of the products.


Assembly and polishing




After the completion of the model components, the balance position is determined by calibrating the skeleton of the main body of the fuselage for installation of support points. At this time, the fuselage is supported by brackets, and components such as wings, flat and vertical tails, cockpit, and landing gear are assembled separately, docked with the fuselage, and the joints are adjusted.


In model production, interface gaps are inevitable, but according to standard requirements, gaps should consider issues such as moderate size, uniformity, symmetry, etc., in order to meet the requirements of both aesthetics and ease of installation and disassembly.


Generally speaking, the gap standard for high-precision models should reach 1-4m, ≤ ± 1.5mm for models below 1m, ≤ ± 1mm for models above 4m, and ≤ ± 3mm for models above 4m.




By using special tools to polish and correct the model as a whole, the details are improved. Some components are relatively cumbersome and require multiple processes from beginning to end.


Painting and coloring




By using a color chart for color matching, ensure that there is no significant color difference with the color chart (with a matching rate of over 98%), first spray a layer of topcoat as a whole, then seal the edges, and then spray other colors. To avoid affecting the appearance of the model and prevent subsequent manual painting.


The selection of paint materials is also a discipline. It should not only meet the requirements of environmental protection and non-toxic, but also take into account the needs of some outdoor exhibitions. Waterproof and sunscreen paint should be selected, and high-temperature baking and electrostatic spraying processes should be carried out to ensure that the model has a permanent and bright luster.


Water paper


The requirements for water paper pasting are also very professional. Not only should it be straight, without any curled edges or corners, but the symmetrical parts of the water paper should be symmetrical, the pattern should be correct, and the position error should be less than 1-2 millimeters.


Finished product inspection


According to customer needs and internal company standards for large models, from materials to surface smoothness, various standards such as exhibition boutiques and general science popularization are used to test the functions of the models one by one. Each function undergoes continuous testing for 20-50 times or more, and is considered to have passed if there are no faults.


Smoothness testing


Conduct inspection and testing on the model, with visual inspection as the main method, supplemented by multi angle inspection under strong light. The requirement for high-quality exhibition models is to have no wave marks under 1000 watts of strong light irradiation, while the requirement for ordinary science popularization models is to have no wave marks under 500 watts of strong light irradiation.


evenness inspection 


Ensure that the surface of the product is free of voids, bubbles, and shrinkage deformation. Use hard objects such as iron bars to tap the edges and corners of the product surface, and use a flat ruler to test the overall surface. The error should be ≤ 0.5mm, and there should be no dents, waves, screw cap marks, needle hole sized sand holes, etc.


Packaging and shipping


The models carefully made in the previous process need to be placed in a special transport box after product testing. Customized boards for each model need to be clamped, and foam paper and other materials are wrapped at the junction of the board and the model to prevent the model from being damaged during transportation.


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